Chemistry 1st-year complete syllabus
Ignou provided Bscg 1st year syllabus for BSCG students. Here we provide you complete Syllabus for Chemistry (BCHCT). You can download these syllabi in pdf.
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Bohr’s Theory: Earlier Atomic Models; Dalton, Thomson and Rutherford Models; Bohr Atom Model: Calculation of Radius of Orbits, Energy of an Electron in an Orbit; Hydrogen Atom Spectrum and Bohr’s Theory; Critical Analysis and Limitations of Bohr’s Theory, Sommerfeld Modification.
Dual Behaviour of Radiation and Matter: The Nature of Radiation: Light as an Electromagnetic Wave, Particle Nature of Radiation; Nature of Matter: de-Broglie’s Relation, Matter Waves, Davisson and Germer Experiment; Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle.
Quantum Mechanical Approach: Need for a New Approach to Atomic Structure; What is
Quantum Mechanics?: Postulates of Quantum Mechanics, Observables and Operators, Eigenfunctions, Eigenvalues; Time-independent Schrödinger Equation; Significance of
and 2 ; Applications of Schrödinger Equation: the Energy States of the Hydrogen-like Atoms.
Hydrogen Atom: Schrödinger Equation for Hydrogen Atom, Significance of Quantum Numbers; Radial Distribution Functions, The Most Probable Distance; Angular Dependence of the Wave Function and Shapes of Atomic Orbitals; Radial and Angular Nodes and their Significance; Discovery of Spin, Spin Quantum Number (s), Magnetic Spin Quantum Number (ms)
Electronic Configuration of Multi-Electron Atoms: Energy Levels for Multi-Electron Atoms; Rules for Filling of Electrons in Various Orbitals, The Aufbau Principle, Hund’s Rule, Pauli Exclusion Principle; Electronic Configuration of Some Multi-Electron Atoms, Stability of Half-Filled and Completely Filled Orbitals, Concept of Exchange Energy, Anomalous Electronic Configurations.
Ionic Bond: Chemical Bonding: Basic Concepts, Effective Nuclear Charge, Ionisation Energy, Electron Affinity, Electronegativity; Ionic Bond, Characteristics of Ionic Compounds, Ionic Radii, Lattice Energy; Solubility and Solvation Energy; Polarising Power and Ploarisability of Ions, Fagan's Rules; The Bonding Continuum; Bond Polarity, Dipole Moments, Determination of Dipole Moment, Application of Dipole Moment Studies.
Covalent Bond: Classical Theory of Covalent Bond, Lewis Concept of Covalent Bond, Writing Lewis Structures, Formal Charge: Predicting Preferred Lewis Structure, Coordinate Covalent Bonds; Characteristics of Covalent Compounds, Covalent Bond Parameters; Molecular Geometry: Valence Shell Electron Pair RepulsionTheory, Central Atom having only Bond Pairs, Central Atom having Bond Pairs and Lone Pairs, Central Atom having Multiple Bonds.
Valence Bond Theory: The Origin of Valence Bond and Molecular Orbital Theories; Principles of Valence Bond Theory; Valence Bond Theory of Hydrogen Molecule; Resonance or Electron Delocalisation; Resonating Structures; Hybridisation of Orbitals.
Molecular Orbital Theory: Molecular Orbital Theory, LCAO method, Bonding, and Antibonding Molecular Orbitals, Molecular Orbitals and their Characteristics, the s-s combination of Atomic Orbitals, the s-p combination of Atomic Orbitals, the p-p combination of Atomic Orbitals, Non-bonding combination of Atomic Orbitals; Rules for Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals;
Molecular Orbital treatment of Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules; Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules; Comparison of Valence Bond and Molecular Orbital Theories.
Stereochemistry I: Geometrical and Optical Isomerisms: Isomerism; Geometrical Isomerism, cis–, trans–Nomenclature, E/Z Nomenclature, Cahn-Ingold-Prelog Rules; Characterisation of Geometrical Isomers; Optical Isomerism; Plane Polarized Light and Optical Activity, Origin of Optical Activity; Chirality, Enantiomers, Diastereomers, Meso Compounds.
Stereochemistry-II: Configurational Isomers: Configuration and Fischer Projection Formulae; Configurational Notations, R/S System, Erythro, and the Nomenclature; Racemic Mixtures and their Resolution.
Stereochemistry-III: Conformational Isomerism: Conformational Isomers: Newman and Sawhorse Representations; Conformations of Ethane; Conformations of Butane; Conformations of Cyclic Systems, Conformations of Cyclohexane.
Structure - Reactivity Relationships: What are Acids and Bases?; Strengths of Acids and Bases; Factors Affecting the Strengths of Acids and Bases, Inductive Effect, Resonance Effect, Hyperconjugation, Hydrogen Bonding, Steric Effect; Tautomerism.
Reactions and Reactive Intermediates: Cleavage of Bonds, Bond Heterolysis, Bond Homolysis; Types of Reagents, Nucleophiles, Electrophiles; Types of Reactions, Substitution Reactions, Addition Reactions, Elimination Reactions, Polymerisation Reactions; Reactive Intermediates, Carbocations, Carbanions, Free Radicals.
Alkanes: Petroleum: A Source of Alkanes, Composition of Petroleum; Physical Properties; Preparation of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes, Wurtz Reaction, Kolbe’s Electrolytic Method, Hydrogenation of Unsaturated Hydrocarbons, Reduction of Alkyl Halides; Decarboxylation of the Carboxylic Acids, Preparation of Cycloalkanes; Reactions of Alkanes, Halogenation, Nitration, Isomerisation, Aromatisation, Pyrolysis, Reactions of Small Ring Compounds.
Alkenes-I: Alkenes and their Classification; Physical Properties; Preparation of Alkenes, Dehydrohalogenation of Alkyl Halides, Dehydration of Alcohols, Hydrogenation of Alkynes, Preparation of Dienes.
Alkenes-II: Reactions of Alkenes, Halogenation, Hydrohalogenation, Hydration, Oxymercuration-demercuration Reaction, Hydroboration, Ozonolysis, Hydroxylation.
Alkynes: Alkynes and their Types; Physical Properties and Uses; Preparation of Alkynes, Dehydrohalogenation of Dihalides, Dehalogenation of Tetrahalides, Alkylation of Ethyne; Reactions of Alkynes, Hydrogenation, Hydrohalogenation, Halogenation, Hydration, Ozonolysis, Hydroboration,
Aromaticity: Aromatic Compounds- an Introduction; Physical Properties; IUPAC Nomenclature of Aromatic Compounds, Nomenclature of Benzene and its Derivatives, Disubstituted Benzenes; Structure of Benzene; Resonance, Molecular orbital model of benzene, Representation of Benzene Ring; Aromaticity, Cyclobutadiene, Cyclopentadiene, Benzene, Cyclooctatetraene.
Titrimetry: An Introduction: Introduction: Apparatus Commonly Used, How to Use a Pipette,
How to Use a Burette, How to Use a Volumetric Flask, How to Use an Analytical Balance; Expression of Concentration; Standard Solution; Titration, Types of Indicators,Types of Titrations; Instrumental Determination of Equivalence Point; Safety Measures in the Laboratory.
List of Experiments:
Experiment 1: Determination of Sodium Carbonate and Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate in a Mixture by indicator method
Experiment 2: Estimation of Oxalic Acid by Redox Titration
Experiment 3: Estimation of Water of Crystallisation in Mohr’s Salt
Experiment 4: Estimation of Copper ions by Chromatometry using internal indicator
Experiment 5: Estimation of Copper Iodometrically
Experiment 6: Detection of Extra Elements (N, S, X) in the Organic Compounds
Experiment 7: Separation and Identification the Components of a given Mixture of Amino Acids by Paper Chromatography
Experiment 8: Separation and Identification the Sugars present in the given Mixture by Paper Chromatography.
Chemical Energetics: Thermodynamics and its Importance; Thermodynamic Terminology; Thermodynamic Processes, Work, Heat and Heat Capacity; Thermodynamic reversibility; The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics.
The First Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Changes Under Constant Volume;
Internal Energy; Work of Expansion; Heat Changes Under Constant Pressure; Enthalpy and Enthalpy Changes.
Thermochemistry: Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions; Calorimetry, Thermochemical Equations, Standard Enthalpy Changes, Relationship between rU and rH; Standard enthalpy of formation and its determination; Enthalpy Changes in Different types of Reactions; Kirchhoff’s Equation; Bond Enthalpies, Bond Dissociation Enthalpy, Estimation of Enthalpies of Reaction and Formation.
Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics: Spontaneous Processes, Enthalpy and Spontaneity, Entropy, Entropy, and Spontaneity, Statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, The Third Law of Thermodynamics, Determination of Absolute Entropy, Concept of Residual Entropy.
Chemical Equilibrium I: Reversible and Irreversible Reactions, Gibb’s Energy Change in a Chemical Reaction, Distinction between ∆G and ∆G0 Chemical Equilibrium in Ideal Gas Mixtures, Thermodynamic Derivation of Law of Chemical Equilibrium, Equilibrium constants and the relationship between Kp, Kx, Kc.
Chemical Equilibrium II: Application of Equilibrium Studies, Le-Chatelier Principle, Effect of Change in Concentration, Pressure, and Temperature, the effect of the addition of Inert Gas / Catalyst.
Ionic Equilibrium I: Electrolytes and Non-Electrolytes, Strong and Weak Electrolytes, Degree of Ionization and Factors Affecting Degree of Ionization, Ionization Constant and Ostwald’s Dilution Law, Review of Theories of Acids and Bases, Ionic Product of Water, Kw, pH Scale and Calculation of pH.
Ionic Equilibrium II: Ionisation Constants of Weak Acids and Bases, Ionisation of Diprotic and Polyprotic Acids; Strength of Acids and Bases, Common Ion Effect, Buffer Solutions, Buffer Action.
Ionic Equilibrium III: Salt Hydrolysis, Hydrolysis Constant and Degree of Hydrolysis, Acidic, Basic and Neutral Salts, pH of Salt Solutions, Solubility and Solubility Product of Sparingly Soluble Salts, Applications of Solubility Product Principle.
Preparation of Aromatic Compounds: Aromatic Hydrocarbons: An Introduction; Nomenclature: A Recall; Structure of Benzene: A Recall; Physical Properties, Isolation of Benzene; Preparations of Benzene, From Phenol, By Decarboxylation, From Acetylene, From Benzene Sulphonic Acid.
Reactions of Aromatic Hydrocarbons-I: Electrophilic Substitution; General Mechanism of Electrophilic Substitution Reactions; Reactions of Benzene, Nitration, Halogenation, Sulphonation, Friedel-Craft’s Alkylation and its Limitations; Friedel-Craft’s Acylation.
Reactions of Aromatic Hydrocarbons-II: Effect of Substituents on Reactivity; Activators and Deactivators; Effect of Substituents on Orientation, Ortho and Para-Directing Activator, Meta-Directing Deactivator, Ortho and Para-Directing Deactivator; Reactions of Side-Chain of Benzene, Oxidation of Side-Chain.
Alkyl Halides: Classification of Halogen Derivatives; Preparation of Alkyl Halides; Structure and Properties of Halogen Derivatives, Structure of Halogen Derivatives, Physical Properties of Halogen Derivatives, Chemical Properties of Alkyl Halides; Uses of Alkyl Halides; Lab Detection.
Aryl Halides: Structure and Reactivity; Preparation of Aryl Halides, From Aromatic Hydrocarbon, From Aromatic Amide; Reaction of Aryl Halides, Nucleophilic Substitution by Addition-Elimination, Nucleophilic Substitution via a Benzene Intermediate, Electrophilic Substitution Reactions, Reactions due to CX bond; Reactivity and Relative Strength of CX Bond in Halogen Derivatives.
Alcohols: Classification of Alcohols; Structure of Alcohols; Preparation of Alcohols,
General Methods of the Preparation of Alcohols, Commercial Preparations of Alcohols; Physical Properties; Chemical Properties, Acidity and Basicity of Alcohols, Reaction of the O–H Bond, Reaction of the C–O Bond; Oxidation of Alcohols; Diols; Lab Detection.
Phenols: Structure and Reactivity; Physical Properties; Preparation of Phenol; Chemical Properties, Acidity, and Basicity of Alcohols and Phenol, Reactions of Phenols, Reactions due to Hydroxyl Group, Reactions due to Aromatic Ring, Oxidation of Phenols, Condensation Reaction, Coupling Reaction, Libermann’s Nitroso reaction.
Ethers: Classification; Preparation of Ethers, Preparation of Open Chain Ethers, Preparation of Epoxides; Properties of Ethers, Physical Properties, Reactions of Open Chain Ethers, Reactions of Epoxides; Crown Ethers and Kryptands(as good hosts); Industrial Uses.
Aldehydes And Ketones: Structure and Physical and Properties, Structure of the Carbonyl Group, Physical Properties; Preparation, General Methods of Preparation, Industrial Methods of Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones; Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones, Addition Reactions, Reactions Involving -Hydrogen, Oxidation, Reduction, Condensation, Specific Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones; Industrial Uses.
Aromatic Aldehydes And Ketones: Preparation of Bezaldehyde and Phenylethanone; Structure and Properties of Aryl aldehydes and ketones
Thermochemistry and Determination of Enthalpy of Neutralisation: Some Fundamental Concepts; The First Law of Thermodynamics; The Enthalpy of a Reaction; The Enthalpy of Neutralisation
List of Experiments:
Experiment 1a: Determination of the Heat Capacity of the Colorimeter, Heat Exchange Method
Experiment 1b: Determination of the Enthalpy of Neutralisation of, Hydrochloric Acid with Sodium Hydroxide
Experiment 2: Determination of the Enthalpies of Neutralisation and Ionisation of Acetic Acid The Enthalpy of Solution:
Experiment 3: Determination of the Integral Enthalpy of Solution of Ammonium Chloride
Experiment 4: Determination of enthalpy of hydration of copper sulphate.
Experiment 5: Study of the solubility of benzoic acid in water and determination of H.
Experiment 6: Measurement of pH of different solutions like aerated drinks, fruit juices, shampoos and soaps using pH-meter.
Experiment 7: Preparation of buffer solutions: (i) Sodium acetate-acetic acid (ii) Ammonium chloride-ammonium hydroxide.
Experiment 8: Purification of organic compounds by crystallization (from water and alcohol) and distillation.
Experiment 9: Criteria of Purity: Determination of melting and boiling points.
Experiment 10: Bromination of Phenol/Aniline
Experiment 11: Benzoylation of amines/phenolsExperiment 12: Oxime and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone of aldehyde/ketone