Botony 1st-year complete syllabus
Ignou provided Bscg 1st year syllabus for BSCG students. IGNOU BBYCT 1st-year complete syllabus, complete Syllabus for Botony (BBYCT). Here we provide you complete Syllabus for Botony (BBYCT). You can download these syllabi in pdf.
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Virus – General Account and Economic Importance: Discovery; General Structure; Economic Importance.
Virus – Replication: Replication – General Account; Replication in DNA – Virus (T Phage); Lytic Cycle, Lysogenic Cycle; Replication in RNA Virus – TMV.
Bacteria: General Account and Economic Importance: Discovery, General Characteristics, Cell Structure, Economic Importance.
Bacteria: Reproduction: Reproduction – Vegetative and Asexual; Recombination, Conjugation, Transformation, Transduction.
Algae : Introduction: General Characteristics, Ecology, and Distribution.
Algae: Organization, Reproduction, and Classification: Range of organization; Reproduction in algae; Classification of algae.
Algae: Morphology and Life Cycles: Morphology and Life Cycles; Nostoc (Structure, reproduction), Chlamydomonas (Structure, reproduction), Oedogonium (Structure, reproduction), Vaucheria (Structure, reproduction), Fucus (Structure, reproduction), Polysiphonia (Structure, reproduction).
Algae: Economic importance: Economic importance of algae.
Fungi: Introduction: General Characteristics; Ecology and significance; Range of thallus organization; Cell wall composition; Nutrition; Reproduction and Classification.
Fungi: True Fungi: General Characteristics; Ecology and significance; Life Cycles, Rhizopus (Zygomycota) Penicillium, Alternaria (Ascomycota), Puccinia, Agaricus (Basidiomycota).
Fungi: Lichens and Mycorrhiza: Lichens; General Account, Reproduction, Significance or Economic Importance; Mycorrhiza Ectomycorrhiza, Endomycorrhiza; Significance.
Introduction to Archegoniates: Unifying features of Archegoniates; Transition to land habit; Alternation of generations.
Bryophytes: An Introduction: General Characteristics; Adaptations to land habit; Classification (up to family).
Bryophytes: Type Studies: Range of Organisation in Bryophytes; Marchantia, Morphology, Anatomy, Reproduction; Funaria, Morphology, Anatomy, Reproduction.
Bryophyta: Ecology, Economic Importance: Ecology ; Economic Importance (special mention of Sphagnum).
Pteridophytes: An Introduction: General Characteristics; Classification (up to family); Early land plants, Cooksonia, Rhynia.
Unit Pteridophytes: Type Studies: Range of Organisation in Pteridophytes; Selaginella; Morphology, Anatomy, Reproduction; Equisetum; Morphology, Anatomy, Reproduction; Pteris, Morphology, Anatomy, Reproduction.
Pteridophytes: Importance and Evolution: Heterospory and seed habit; Stelar Evolution; Ecological and economical importance of Pteridophytes.
Gymnosperms: General Characteristics: General Characteristics; Classification (up to family):Gymnosperms: Cycas Morphology; Anatomy; Reproduction; Gymnosperms: Pinus Morphology; Anatomy; Reproduction; Gymnosperms: Importance Ecological Importance; Economic Importance.
EMs/Models of viruses – T-Phage and TMV, Line drawing/Photograph of Lytic and Lysogenic Cycle.
Types of Bacteria from temporary/permanent slides/photographs; EM bacterium; Binary Fission; Conjugation; Structure of root nodule.
Study of vegetative and reproductive structures of Nostoc, Chlamydomonas (electron micrographs), Oedogonium, Vaucheria, Fucus*, and Polysiphonia through temporary preparations and permanent slides. (* Fucus - Specimen and permanent slides)
Rhizopus and Penicillium: Asexual stage from temporary mounts and sexual structures through permanent slides.
Alternaria: Specimens/photographs and tease mounts.
Puccinia: Herbarium specimens of Black Stem Rust of Wheat and infected Barberry leaves; section/tease mounts of spores on Wheat and permanent slides of both the hosts.
Agaricus: Specimens of button stage and full-grown mushroom; Sectioning of gills of Agaricus.
Lichens: Study of growth forms of lichens (crustose, foliose, and fruticose)
Mycorrhiza: ectomycorrhiza and endomycorrhiza (Photographs)
Marchantia - Morphology of thallus, W.M. rhizoids, and scales, V.S. thallus through gemma cup, W.M. gemmae (all temporary slides), V.S. antheridiophore, archegoniophore, L.S. sporophyte (all permanent slides).
Funaria - Morphology, W.M. leaf, rhizoids, operculum, peristome, annulus, spores (temporary slides); permanent slides showing antheridial and archegonial heads, L.S. capsule, and protonema.
Selaginella - Morphology, W.M. leaf with a ligule, T.S. stem, W.M. strobilus, W.M.
microsporophyll and megasporophyll (temporary slides), L.S. strobilus (permanent slide).
Equisetum - Morphology, T.S. internode, L.S. strobilus, T.S. strobilus, W.M. sporangiophore, W.M. spores (wet and dry)(temporary slides); T.S. rhizome (permanent slide).
Pteris - Morphology, T.S. rachis, V.S. sporophyll, W.M. sporangium, W.M. spores (temporary slides), T.S. rhizome, W.M. prothallus with sex organs and young sporophyte (permanent slide).
Cycas - Morphology (coralloid roots, bulbil, leaf), T.S. coralloid root, T.S. rachis, V.S. leaflet, V.S.. microsporophyll, W.M. spores (temporary slides), L.S. ovule, T.S. root (permanent slide).
Pinus - Morphology (long and dwarf shoots, W.M. dwarf shoot, male and female), W.M.
dwarf shoot, T.S. needle, T.S. stem, L.S/T.S. male cone, W.M. microsporophyll, W.M.
microspores (temporary slides), L.S. female cone, T.L.S., and R.L.S. stem (permanent slide).
Introduction to Plant Ecology: What is Ecology? History of Ecology; Subdivisions of Ecology; Relationship of Ecology with other disciplines of Biology; Basic Terms of Ecology - Environment, Biosphere, Ecosystem, Population, Community.
Ecological Factors: Soil and Water: Soil - What is Soil? Origin and formation of Soil; Composition of Soil, Soil profile, Properties of Soil, Soil biota and fertility, Water - States of Water in Environment, Precipitation types, Global distribution of Water, Properties of Water, Water Cycle.
Ecological Factors: Light and Temperature: Light - Electromagnetic spectrum, Solar energy input, Periodic variations, Distribution, Temperature - Latitudinal and altitudinal variations, Global temperature distribution, Shelford Law of Tolerance.
Adaptations of hydrophytes and xerophytes: Hydrophytes - Free-floating plants, Rooted plants with floating leaves, Submerged floating plants, Rooted submerged plants, Rooted emerged plants; Xerophytes - Ephemeral annuals, Succulents, Non-succulent perennials.
Introduction to Plant Communities: What is a community? Community gradients and boundaries; Community characters - Analytical characters, Synthetic characters.
Succession in Communities: What is succession? Processes in succession; Types of succession – Hydrarch, Xerarch.
Ecosystem Structure: Ecosystem – as a unit of nature; Structure – Abiotic, Biotic; Trophic organization.
Ecosystem Functioning: Ecological pyramids, Energy flow in an ecosystem, Food chain, Food web.
Biogeochemical Cycling: Biogeochemical cycling, Cycling of carbon, Cycling of nitrogen, Cycling of phosphorus.
Phytogeography: Types of vegetation, Distribution of vegetation over the world, Phytogeographical zones of India, Endemism, Hotspots of India.
Introduction to Plant Taxonomy: What is Plant Taxonomy? History of Plant Taxonomy; Aims and Objectives of Taxonomy -Classification, Identification, Nomenclature.
Herbaria and Botanical Garden: Field Observations: Ecological – Phytosociological; Herbaria - Functions of Herbarium, Important Herbaria of World and India; Botanical Gardens of World and India - Role of a Botanic Garden, Role of Botanical Survey of India.
Taxonomy Documentation: General Taxonomic Indexes; Types of documentation– Floras, Monographs, Manuals, Revisions, Periodicals; Keys - What are Keys? Types of Keys, Construction of Keys, How to use a Key, How to prepare a Key, Punch Card, Single access, and multi-access.
Taxonomic Evidence: Alpha Taxonomy and Omega Taxonomy; Taxonomy Evidences from Palynology; Taxonomy Evidences from Cytology - Chromosomes Numbers, Chromosomes Structure, Chromosomes Behaviour; Evidence from Phytochemistry - Directly visible Chemical Characters, Primary Metabolites, Secondary Metabolites, Semantides; Evidence from Molecular Data.
Taxonomy Hierarchy: Concept of Taxa; Ranks; Categories and hierarchy; Taxonomy groups; Species concept.
Botanical Nomenclature: Development of Concept - International Code; Principal of Binomial Nomenclature; Important Rules of Nomenclature; Binomial System – Bauhin, Linnaeus.
Scientific Naming of Plants : Nomenclature: Common Name: it’s problem; Nomenclature: The Code; Laws and Provisions; Rules - Ranks of Taxa, Typification, Principals of Priority and its limitations, Effective and valid publication, Author citation, Retention, Choice, and rejection of names.
System of Classification: Types of Classifications – Artificial, Natural Classification, Phylogenetic Classification; Natural System of Classification; Bentham and Hooker’s Classification - Outline and Basis of Classification, Merits, Demerits; Engler and Prantl’s System of Classification; Outline and Basis of Classification; Merits; Demerits.
Biometrics, Numerical Taxonomy: Numerical Taxonomy; Characters; Principles of Numerical Taxonomy; Procedures adopted by Numerical Taxonomists - Choice of units to be studied, Character selection, Binary coding or two-state coding, Multi-state coding, Measurement of similarity, Cluster analysis.
Cladistics: Phenograms - Definition; Cladograms - Definition, Types of Clades, Building, and interpretation of Cladograms.
Study of instruments used to measure microclimatic variables: Soil thermometer, maximum and minimum thermometer, anemometer, psychrometer/hygrometer, rain gauge, and lux meter.
Determination of pH, and analysis of two soil samples for carbonates, chlorides, nitrates, sulfates, organic matter, and base deficiency by rapid field test.
Comparison of bulk density, porosity, and rate of infiltration of water in the soil of three habitats.
Study of morphological adaptations of hydrophytes and xerophytes (four each).
Study of biotic interactions of the following: Stem parasite (Cuscuta), Root parasite (Orobanche), Epiphytes, Predation (Insectivorous plants)
Determination of minimal quadrat size for the study of herbaceous vegetation in the college campus by species-area curve method. (species to be listed)
Quantitative analysis of herbaceous vegetation in the college campus for frequency and comparison with Raunkiaer’s frequency distribution law.
Study of vegetative and floral characters of the following families (Description, V.S. flower, the section of the ovary, floral diagram/s, floral formula/e and systematic position according to Bentham & Hooker’s system of classification): Brassicaceae - Brassica, Alyssum / Iberis; Asteraceae -Sonchus/Launaea, Vernonia/Ageratum, Eclipta/Tridax; Solanaceae –Solanum nigrum, Withania; Lamiaceae -Salvia, Ocimum; Liliaceae - Asphodelus / Lilium / Allium.
Mounting of a properly dried and pressed specimen of any wild plant with herbarium label (to be submitted in the record book).